Linux Users and Groups

August 13, 2021

Introduction

Linux is by far the most widely used corporate operating system. While administering a Linux machine or a Linux-based corporate PC housing multiple users, you might encounter situations where you have to control those users. Managing user permissions is a distinctive feature that Linux caters to its system admins. If you are new to Linux or manage user groups, this article will give you a crisp idea of how to use them. First thing first, let us understand what a Linux user is and what is group permission?

What are Linux Users?

All Linux and Unix systems can perform multitasking like other operating systems. Yet, there is a significant distinction between Linux and other operating systems. It's the concept of multiple users. Linux can render access and use its system resources to multiple users simultaneously. Thus, to sustain this multiuser design structure and make it work, we must incorporate some protection techniques.

What are file permission and group permission?

Multiple users share the same operating system. So, to protect the files and maintain proper accessibility, permissions play a significant role. Linux allows its users to add file permission for reading, writing, and executing a file.

 A Linux group contains many users. These organizational units help in administering and organizing different user accounts. Through Linux groups, users can set certain privileges to read, write, and execute permission on specific resources shared between users in the Linux group.

Types of groups in the Linux Operating system

Linux comes with two different variations of groups. These are –

·        The Primary Group: As soon as the user creates a file, its group gets assigned as primary. In this case, the group name remains the same as the username. It stores all its relevant information in the /etc/passwd file.

·        The Secondary Group: This group is for those users with whom you want to share specific files by granting permissions. You can set the permissions to the group members only.

Reading, Writing, and Executing Permissions in Linux

To give the permissions to the groups, one needs to have a clear idea of the various permission rights available for files or directories.

·        Read permission: This permission allows a file to open for readability purposes only. Through this permission, users can only view the data without altering it. If a directory has permission to read, the user can only list the directory content.

·        Write permission: This permission allows the user to modify any content from the file. If this permission is available with the directory, it will permit the user to edit the directory's content.

· Execute: It is powerful permission that authorizes the user to execute any script or program. If this permission is available with the system directory, users can switch to different locations - making it a current directory.

How to View File Permissions

Sometimes it becomes essential to check the permission mode of the file in Linux. In such a situation, users can view the directory or file permission using the command:

ls -l < file/directory>.

How to create a group?

Creating a new group is easy. Use the 'groupadd' command along with the name of the group. The command syntax will look like this:

$sudo groupadd groupname

Add an Existing User to a Group

You might encounter a situation where adding a user to a secondary group will make the group work on a single project or run a single program. In such a situation, you have to use the command 'usermod -a -G', along with the group and username.

The command syntax will look like this:

$ sudo usermod -a -G groupname username

Example,

$ sudo usermod -a -G devops karlos

Adding an Existing User to Multiple Groups –

A situation might arise where you might need to add a particular user to a handful of secondary groups. You can use a single command to perform this. You can do this by implementing the 'usermod' command served with a -G option. Also, you have to mention all the group names with a comma separating them.

The command syntax will look like this:

$ sudo usermod -a -G group1,group2,group3 username

Example,

$ sudo usermod -a -G devops,sudo,docker karlos

Remove a User from a Group

You can use the 'gpasswd' command served with the -d option to remove a user from a secondary group. The command syntax will look like this:

$ sudo gpasswd -d username group

Conclusion

Linux is one of the most secure OS. Linux admins have the privilege to set rights and permissions for each user sharing the OS resources. The commands shown here are applicable for different distributions of Linux, such as Ubuntu, CentOS, RHEL, Debian, and Linux E2E Cloud uses Linux as its OS environment.

Introduction

Linux is by far the most widely used corporate operating system. While administering a Linux machine or a Linux-based corporate PC housing multiple users, you might encounter situations where you have to control those users. Managing user permissions is a distinctive feature that Linux caters to its system admins. If you are new to Linux or manage user groups, this article will give you a crisp idea how to use them. First thing first, let us understand what a Linux user is and what is group permission?

What are Linux Users?

All Linux and Unix systems can perform multitasking like other operating systems. Yet, there is a significant distinction between Linux and other operating systems. It's the concept of multiple users. Linux can render access and use its system resources to multiple users simultaneously. Thus, to sustain this multiuser design structure and make it work, we must incorporate some protection techniques.

What are file permission and group permission?

Multiple users share the same operating system. So, to protect the files and maintain proper accessibility, permissions play a significant role. Linux allows its users to add file permission for reading, writing, and executing a file.

 A Linux group contains many users. These organizational units help in administering and organizing different user accounts. Through Linux groups, users can set certain privileges to read, write, and execute permission on specific resources shared between users in the Linux group.

Types of groups in the Linux Operating system

Linux comes with two different variations of groups. These are –

·        The Primary Group: As soon as the user creates a file, its group gets assigned as primary. In this case, the group name remains the same as the username. It stores all its relevant information in the /etc/passwd file.

·        The Secondary Group: This group is for those users with whom you want to share specific files by granting permissions. You can set the permissions to the group members only.

Reading, Writing, and Executing Permissions in Linux

To give the permissions to the groups, one needs to have a clear idea of the various permission rights available for files or directories.

·        Read permission: This permission allows a file to open for readability purposes only. Through this permission, users can only view the data without altering it. If a directory has permission to read, the user can only list the directory content.

·        Write permission: This permission allows the user to modify any content from the file. If this permission is available with the directory, it will permit the user to edit the directory's content.

·        Execute: It is a powerful permission that authorizes the user to execute any script or program. If this permission is available with the system directory, users can switch to different locations - making it a current directory.

How to View File Permissions

Sometimes it becomes essential to check the permission mode of the file in Linux. In such a situation, users can view the directory or file permission using the command:

ls -l < file/directory>.

How to create a group?

Creating a new group is easy. Use the 'groupadd' command along with the name of the group. The command syntax will look like this:

$sudo groupadd groupname

Add an Existing User to a Group

You might encounter a situation where adding a user to a secondary group will make the group work on a single project or run a single program. In such a situation, you have to use the command 'usermod -a -G', along with the group and username.

The command syntax will look like this:

$ sudo usermod -a -G groupname username

Example,

$ sudo usermod -a -G devops karlos

Adding an Existing User to Multiple Groups –

A situation might arise where you might need to add a particular user to a handful of secondary groups. You can use a single command to perform this. You can do this by implementing the 'usermod' command served with a -G option. Also, you have to mention all the group names with a comma separating them.

The command syntax will look like this:

$ sudo usermod -a -G group1,group2,group3 username

Example,

$ sudo usermod -a -G devops,sudo,docker karlos

Remove a User from a Group

You can use the 'gpasswd' command served with the -d option to remove a user from a secondary group. The command syntax will look like this:

$ sudo gpasswd -d username group

Conclusion

Linux is one of the most secure OS. Linux admins have the privilege to set rights and permissions for each user sharing the OS resources. The commands shown here are applicable for different distributions of Linux, such as Ubuntu, CentOS, RHEL, Debian, and Linux E2E Cloud uses Linux as its OS environment.

Know more about E2E Cloud - https://www.e2enetworks.com/cloud-credits-request-rk/
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How is Project Management Done For AI, ML or DL Projects?

As already established, efficient project management is of great importance in AI/ML/DL projects. So, if you are planning to move into this field as a professional, here are some tips –

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  • Deployment of the project-

After the project is completed, then we come to its deployment. It can either be deployed on a local server or the Cloud. So, data engineers see if the local GPU or the Cloud GPU are in order. And, then they deploy the code along with the required dashboard to view the analytics.

Final Words-

To sum it up, this is a generic overview of how a project management system should work for AI/ML/DL projects. However, a point to keep in mind here is that this is not a universal process. The particulars will alter according to a specific project. 

Reference Links:

https://www.datacamp.com/blog/how-to-manage-ai-projects-effectively

https://appinventiv.com/blog/ai-project-management/#:~:text=There%20are%20six%20steps%20that,product%20on%20the%20right%20platform.

https://www.datascience-pm.com/manage-ai-projects/

https://community.pmi.org/blog-post/70065/how-can-i-manage-complex-ai-projects-#_=_

This is a decorative image for Top 7 AI & ML start-ups in Telecom Industry in India
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Top 7 AI & ML start-ups in Telecom Industry in India

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Top AI and ML Startups in Telecom Industry 

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Wiom

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TechVantage

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Manthan

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NetraDyne

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KeyPoint Tech

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Helpshift

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Facilio

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In conclusion, the telecom industry in India is actively looking to improve the services provided to customers to ensure maximum customer satisfaction. From top-class networking solutions to better management of increasing databases using GPU cloud or other GPU online services to manage data hungry workloads efficiently, AI and MI-enabled solutions have taken the telecom industry by storm. Moreover, with the introduction of artificial intelligence and machine learning in this industry, the scope of innovation and improvement is higher than ever before.

 

 

References

https://www.inventiva.co.in/trends/telecom-startup-funding-inr-30-crore/

https://www.mygreatlearning.com/blog/top-ai-startups-in-india/

This is a decorative image for Top 7 AI Startups in Education Industry
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Top 7 AI Startups in Education Industry

The evolution of the global education system is an interesting thing to watch. The way this whole sector has transformed in the past decade can make a great case study on how modern technology like artificial intelligence (AI) makes a tangible difference in human life. 

In this evolution, edtech startups have played a pivotal role. And, in this write-up, you will get a chance to learn about some of them. So, read on to explore more.

Top AI Startups in the Education Industry-

Following is a list of education startups that are making a difference in the way this sector is transforming –

  1. Miko

Miko started its operations in 2015 in Mumbai, Maharashtra. Miko has made a companion for children. This companion is a bot which is powered by AI technology. The bot is able to perform an array of functions like talking, responding, educating, providing entertainment, and also understanding a child’s requirements. Additionally, the bot can answer what the child asks. It can also carry out a guided discussion for clarifying any topic to the child. Miko bots are integrated with a companion app which allows parents to control them through their Android and iOS devices. 

  1. iNurture

iNurture was founded in 2005 in Bengaluru, Karnataka. It provides universities assistance with job-oriented UG and PG courses. It offers courses in IT, innovation, marketing leadership, business analytics, financial services, design and new media, and design. One of its popular products is KRACKiN. It is an AI-powered platform which engages students and provides employment with career guidance. 

  1. Verzeo

Verzeo started its operations in 2018 in Bengaluru, Karnataka. It is a platform based on AI and ML. It provides academic programmes involving multi-disciplinary learning that can later culminate in getting an internship. These programmes are in subjects like artificial intelligence, machine learning, digital marketing and robotics.

  1. EnglishEdge 

EnglishEdge was founded in Noida in 2012. EnglishEdge provides courses driven by AI for getting skilled in English. There are several programmes to polish your English skills through courses provided online like professional edge, conversation edge, grammar edge and professional edge. There is also a portable lab for schools using smart classes for teaching the language. 

  1. CollPoll

CollPoll was founded in 2013 in Bengaluru, Karnataka. The platform is mobile- and web-based. CollPoll helps in managing educational institutions. It helps in the management of admission, curriculum, timetable, placement, fees and other features. College or university administrators, faculty and students can share opinions, ideas and information on a central server from their Android and iOS phones.

  1. Thinkster

Thinkster was founded in 2010 in Bengaluru, Karnataka. Thinkster is a program for learning mathematics and it is based on AI. The program is specifically focused on teaching mathematics to K-12 students. Students get a personalised experience as classes are conducted in a one-on-one session with the tutors of mathematics. Teachers can give scores for daily worksheets along with personalised comments for the improvement of students. The platform uses AI to analyse students’ performance. You can access the app through Android and iOS devices.

  1. ByteLearn 

ByteLearn was founded in Noida in 2020. ByteLean is an assistant driven by artificial intelligence which helps mathematics teachers and other coaches to tutor students on its platform. It provides students attention in one-on-one sessions. ByteLearn also helps students with personalised practice sessions.

Key Highlights

  • High demand for AI-powered personalised education, adaptive learning and task automation is steering the market.
  • Several AI segments such as speech and image recognition, machine learning algorithms and natural language processing can radically enhance the learning system with automatic performance assessment, 24x7 tutoring and support and personalised lessons.
  • As per the market reports of P&S Intelligence, the worldwide AI in the education industry has a valuation of $1.1 billion as of 2019.
  • In 2030, it is projected to attain $25.7 billion, indicating a 32.9% CAGR from 2020 to 2030.

Bottom Line

Rising reliability on smart devices, huge spending on AI technologies and edtech and highly developed learning infrastructure are the primary contributors to the growth education sector has witnessed recently. Notably, artificial intelligence in the education sector will expand drastically. However, certain unmapped areas require innovations.

With experienced well-coordinated teams and engaging ideas, AI education startups can achieve great success.

Reference Links:

https://belitsoft.com/custom-elearning-development/ai-in-education/ai-in-edtech

https://www.emergenresearch.com/blog/top-10-leading-companies-in-the-artificial-intelligence-in-education-sector-market

https://xenoss.io/blog/ai-edtech-startups

https://riiid.com/en/about

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