A Guide to LaVie - Text to Video Generation AI

January 10, 2024

In an era where visual content reigns supreme, the convergence of artificial intelligence and video generation has reached unparalleled heights with LaVie. LaVie stands as a pioneering framework, redefining the standards of text-to-video generation. By harnessing the power of cascaded Video Latent Diffusion Models, LaVie introduces an intricate architecture comprising a Base T2V model, Temporal Interpolation model, and Video Super-Resolution model. This innovation aims to seamlessly translate text into visually realistic, temporally coherent videos, setting new benchmarks in quality and creative generation capabilities.

Understanding LaVie: What Is Text-to-Video Generation AI?

LaVie stands at the forefront of AI-driven technologies, leveraging Natural Language Processing (NLP), Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs), and deep learning techniques to convert textual input into compelling video content. With its sophisticated algorithms, LaVie analyzes text inputs, interprets their context, and generates corresponding video sequences that align with the provided content.

How Does LaVie Work?

Text Input: Users input descriptive text, including narratives, scenarios, or dialogues.

Natural Language Processing: LaVie processes the text through advanced NLP models to comprehend its essence, identifying key elements and contexts.

Video Generation: Leveraging its AI capabilities, LaVie creates corresponding visual content by assembling scenes, characters, animations, and backgrounds that match the narrative.

Refinement and Customization: Users can fine-tune generated videos, select styles, adjust visuals, or add personalized elements to suit their preferences.

Key Features and Capabilities of LaVie

Diverse Video Styles: LaVie offers an array of video styles, from animated storytelling to explainer videos, enabling users to select the most suitable format for their content.

Customization Options: Users have the freedom to personalize videos by choosing characters, backgrounds, music, and other elements that resonate with their brand or message.

Time and Resource Efficiency: LaVie significantly reduces the time and resources required for video production, streamlining the content creation process.

Scalability: Its automated workflow allows for scalability, enabling the creation of multiple videos simultaneously.

Applications of LaVie

Marketing and Advertising: Businesses can generate captivating promotional videos for products or services.

Education and Training: Educational institutions and trainers can create engaging instructional videos or presentations.

Social Media Content: Influencers and content creators can produce engaging videos for various social media platforms.

Entertainment Industry: From storytelling to creating short films, LaVie contributes to the entertainment sector by simplifying the video production process.

The Core Approach of LaVie

At the heart of LaVie lies a trifecta of distinct networks, each playing a crucial role in the video generation process. The LaVie framework operates as a layered system crafted to create videos based on textual descriptions by employing Video Latent Diffusion Models. Its architecture comprises three distinct networks:

  • The Base T2V model generates concise, low-resolution keyframes.
  • The Temporal Interpolation model enhances these brief videos by interpolating frames to augment the frame rate.
  • The Video Super Resolution model transforms low-resolution videos into high-definition ones.

Each model undergoes individual training, with textual inputs acting as conditioning information. During the inference stage, LaVie, when provided with latent noises and a textual prompt, can produce a 61-frame video with a resolution of 1280×2048 pixels.

Base T2V Model

The modified version of the original Latent Diffusion Model (LDM), initially a 2D UNet, involves expanding each 2D convolutional layer to encompass an additional temporal dimension. This expansion results in the creation of a pseudo-3D convolutional layer, introducing an extra-temporal axis to the input tensor. Furthermore, the original transformer block extends to form a Spatio-Temporal Transformer by integrating a temporal attention layer after each spatial layer. This incorporation includes Rotary Positional Encoding to unify the temporal attention layer. This method is more straightforward and efficient compared to previous techniques, avoiding the need for an additional Temporal Transformer.

The primary objective of the base model is to produce high-quality keyframes that maintain diversity and capture the inherent composition of videos. This process involves generating videos aligned with creative prompts. However, fine-tuning the model exclusively on video datasets leads to rapid knowledge loss, causing the model to forget previous information quickly. To counter this issue, a joint fine-tuning approach utilizing both image and video data is implemented. Images are concatenated along the temporal axis to construct a T-frame video, and the model is trained to optimize the objectives of both T2I and T2V tasks.This approach notably enhances video quality and effectively transfers diverse concepts from images to videos, encompassing various styles, scenes, and characters. The resulting base model, without altering the architecture of LDM and undergoing joint training on image and video data, demonstrates proficiency in handling both T2I and T2V tasks. This highlights the adaptability and applicability of the proposed design.

Temporal Interpolation Model

The base T2V model undergoes expansion with the integration of a temporal interpolation network aimed at refining the smoothness and intricacy of the resulting videos. Specifically, a diffusion UNet is trained to quadruple the frame rate of the initial base video, transforming a 16-frame base video into an upsampled output of 61 frames.

Throughout the training process, the frames of the base video are replicated to align with the desired frame rate and combined with noisy high-frame-rate frames. These combined frames are then inputted into the diffusion UNet. The UNet's training focuses on reconstructing noise-free high-frame-rate frames, enabling it to acquire denoising capabilities and produce interpolated frames. During inference, the base video frames are merged with randomly initialized Gaussian noise, subsequently removed by the diffusion UNet, resulting in the generation of 61 interpolated frames.

This methodology stands out due to its distinct approach wherein each interpolated frame replaces the corresponding input frame, deviating from conventional methods where input frames remain unchanged during the interpolation process. Moreover, the conditioning of the diffusion UNet on the text prompt serves as supplementary guidance for the temporal interpolation process, elevating the overall quality and coherence of the generated videos.

Video Super-Resolution Model

To enhance the visual quality and spatial resolution of the resulting videos, an integrated Video Super-Resolution (VSR) model is implemented within the video generation process. This model entails training an LDM upsampler, aiming to boost the video resolution up to 1280×2048 pixels. Leveraging a pre-trained diffusion-based image ×4 upscale as a foundation, it is adapted to handle video inputs in a 3D context by incorporating an added temporal dimension within the diffusion UNet. This adaptation involves introducing temporal layers, such as temporal attention and a 3D convolutional layer, to augment the temporal coherence within the generated videos.

The diffusion UNet, influenced by additional text descriptions and noise levels as conditioning factors, offers adaptable control over the texture and quality of the refined output. The primary focus lies in refining the inserted temporal layers within the V-LDM, while the spatial layers within the pre-trained upscaler remain unchanged. The model undergoes patchwise training on 320 × 320 patches, utilizing the low-resolution video as a robust condition. This strategy preserves the inherent convolutional characteristics, facilitating efficient training on patches of varying sizes while maintaining the ability to process inputs of arbitrary dimensions.

Tutorial - Using LaVie on E2E Cloud

If you require extra GPU resources for the tutorials ahead, you can explore the offerings on E2E CLOUD. We provide a diverse selection of GPUs, making them a suitable choice for more advanced LLM-based applications.To get one, head over to MyAccount, and sign up. Then launch a GPU node as is shown in the screenshot below:

Make sure you add your ssh keys during launch, or through the security tab after launching. Once you have launched a node, you can use VSCode Remote Explorer to ssh into the node and use it as a local development environment.

Using LaVie - Text-to-Video Generation Framework

LaVie is a Text-to-Video (T2V) generation framework built on PyTorch, forming an integral part of the video generation system called Vchitect. This tutorial will guide you through the installation process, downloading pre-trained models, and running inference steps for video generation using LaVie.


To begin, follow these steps to set up the LaVie environment:

1. Clone the repository containing the official PyTorch implementation of LaVie.

!git clone https://github.com/Vchitect/LaVie.git

2. Navigate to the cloned repository in your terminal.Run the following commands in your terminal:

conda env create -f environment.yml
conda activate lavie

This will create a Conda environment named lavie and activate it, ensuring you have all the necessary dependencies installed.

Download Pre-Trained Models

After setting up the environment, download the pre-trained LaVie models, Stable Diffusion 1.4, stable-diffusion-x4-upscaler into the pretrained_models directory within your cloned repository.

├── pretrained_models
│   ├── lavie_base.pt
│   ├── lavie_interpolation.pt
│   ├── lavie_vsr.pt
│   ├── stable-diffusion-v1-4
│   │   ├── ...
└── └── stable-diffusion-x4-upscaler
        ├── ...


The inference contains Base T2V, Video Interpolation and Video Super-Resolution three steps. We provide several options to generate videos:

Running Inference for Video Generation

LaVie offers three steps in the inference process: Base T2V, Video Interpolation, and Video Super-Resolution. Below are the steps to perform each:

Base T2V

To generate videos using the Base T2V model, execute the following command in your terminal:

cd base
python pipelines/sample.py --config configs/sample.yaml

In the configs/sample.yaml file, you can modify various arguments for inference, such as:

  • ckpt_path: Path to the downloaded LaVie base model (../pretrained_models/lavie_base.pt by default).
  • pretrained_models: Path to the downloaded Stable Diffusion 1.4 models (../pretrained_models by default).
  • output_folder: Path to save the generated results (../res/base by default).
  • Other parameters like seed, sample_method, guidance_scale, num_sampling_steps, and text_prompt for generation.

Video Interpolation (Optional)

If you want to perform video interpolation, navigate to the interpolation directory and run the following command:

cd interpolation
python sample.py --config configs/sample.yaml

Modify the input_folder in the configs/sample.yaml file to specify your input video path. The code processes all videos in the specified input folder, assuming they are named as prompt1.mp4, prompt2.mp4, and so on.

Video Super-Resolution (Optional)

For video super-resolution, go to the vsr directory and run:

cd vsr
python sample.py --config configs/sample.yaml

Similar to the video interpolation step, modify the input_path in the configs/sample.yaml file to specify your input video path. Follow these steps carefully to leverage LaVie's capabilities for Text-to-Video generation, including video interpolation and super-resolution, based on your requirements. Adjust the parameters and input according to your desired prompts and videos.

Deployed Gradio Example

A very much deployable use case which you can run on your systems and try out is as follows:

Clone Repository and Change Directory

%cd /content
!git clone -b dev https://github.com/camenduru/LaVie-hf
%cd /content/LaVie-hf

Download Pretrained Models

!apt -y install -qq aria2
!aria2c --console-log-level=error -c -x 16 -s 16 -k 1M https://huggingface.co/vdo/LaVie/resolve/main/pretrained_models/lavie_vsr.pt -d /content/LaVie-hf/pretrained_models -o lavie_vsr.pt
!aria2c --console-log-level=error -c -x 16 -s 16 -k 1M https://huggingface.co/vdo/LaVie/resolve/main/pretrained_models/lavie_interpolation.pt -d /content/LaVie-hf/pretrained_models -o lavie_interpolation.pt
!aria2c --console-log-level=error -c -x 16 -s 16 -k 1M https://huggingface.co/vdo/LaVie/resolve/main/pretrained_models/lavie_base.pt -d /content/LaVie-hf/pretrained_models -o lavie_base.pt
!aria2c --console-log-level=error -c -x 16 -s 16 -k 1M https://huggingface.co/vdo/LaVie/resolve/main/pretrained_models/safety_checker/model.safetensors -d /content/LaVie-hf/pretrained_models/safety_checker -o model.safetensors
!aria2c --console-log-level=error -c -x 16 -s 16 -k 1M https://huggingface.co/vdo/LaVie/resolve/main/pretrained_models/text_encoder/pytorch_model.bin -d /content/LaVie-hf/pretrained_models/text_encoder -o pytorch_model.bin
!aria2c --console-log-level=error -c -x 16 -s 16 -k 1M https://huggingface.co/vdo/LaVie/resolve/main/pretrained_models/vae/diffusion_pytorch_model.bin -d /content/LaVie-hf/pretrained_models/vae -o diffusion_pytorch_model.bin
  • Install aria2, a command-line download utility.
  • Downloads several pretrained models from specific URLs and saves them into the /content/LaVie-hf/pretrained_models directory.

Install Python Dependencies

!pip install -q gradio==3.50.2 einops diffusers accelerate rotary_embedding_torch omegaconf av
!pip install -q https://download.pytorch.org/whl/cu118/xformers-0.0.22.post4%2Bcu118-cp310-cp310-manylinux2014_x86_64.whl

Install various Python packages and dependencies required for the project, including gradio, einops, diffusers, accelerate, rotary_embedding_torch, omegaconf, av, and a specific version of xformers.

Run Python Script

!python base/app.py
  • Execute a Python script (app.py) located in the /base directory within the cloned repository. This script likely contains the main functionality of the LaVie-hf project.
  • Click on the link that appears and that would take you to the Gradio web interface and you can experiment with it.

Output Image:

One can surely experiment with changing the values of steps, seed and guidance_scale.

Optimizing Performance

Efficiency is key in video generation. LaVie offers various optimization techniques to enhance performance, especially when dealing with high-resolution outputs.

  • Batch Processing: Process videos in batches to maximize GPU utilization.
  • Lower-Resolution Prototyping: Start with lower-resolution prototypes and scale up for the final output
  • Parallel Processing: Utilize multi-threading or distributed computing for large-scale video generation tasks.

Best Practices for Optimal Results

To achieve the best results with LaVie, it’s important to follow certain best practices:

Resource Management: Video generation is resource-intensive. Ensure you have adequate computational resources.

Experimenting with Parameters: Experimenting with different parameters can yield unique and interesting results.

Staying Updated: Keep your LaVie installation and dependencies updated for the latest features and improvements.


LaVie's prowess is substantiated through rigorous qualitative and quantitative evaluations across diverse datasets:

Qualitative Evaluation

LaVie's ability to synthesize diverse content with spatial and temporal coherence is evident. From actions like ‘YPanda playing guitar’ to intricate scene creations, it showcases superior visual fidelity and style capture. This superiority stems from its initiation from a pre-trained LDM and the joint fine-tuning across image and video datasets.

Quantitative Evaluation

Outperforming state-of-the-art models on datasets like UCF101 and MSR-VTT, LaVie exhibits adeptness in handling smaller training datasets and showcasing superior performance. Its robust training scheme and reliance on the Vimeo 25M dataset have significantly impacted its success.

Human Evaluation

In human assessment, LaVie surpasses other models in human preference. Yet, challenges persist in achieving satisfactory motion smoothness and producing high-quality visuals of faces, bodies, and hands.

Expanding Applications

Beyond conventional text-to-video generation, LaVie showcases adaptability in long video generation and personalized synthesis. Its recursive approach extends video generation beyond single sequences, while personalized T2V generation integrates methods for scene creation based on specific characters in novel settings.

Furthermore, LaVie showcases its adaptability in personalized T2V generation by incorporating a personalized image generation method, like LoRA. The process involves fine-tuning the spatial layers of the model utilizing LoRA with self-collected images while maintaining the frozen state of the temporal modules. This modification empowers LaVie to generate personalized videos in response to diverse prompts, crafting scenarios that portray distinct characters in unique settings.

Limitations of LaVie

While LaVie has made significant strides in the realm of general text-to-video generation, it grapples with specific limitations, especially concerning multi-subject generation and the depiction of hands. The existing models encounter difficulties when generating scenes featuring more than two subjects, often blending appearances instead of distinctly creating individuals. This challenge isn't exclusive to LaVie and has also been noted in models like the T2I model. One potential remedy might involve substituting the current language model, CLIP, with a more robustly comprehending model like T5. This change aims to enhance the model's understanding of complex language descriptions, potentially mitigating the issue of subject blending in multi-subject scenarios.

Moreover, the generation of high-quality, lifelike representations of human hands presents an ongoing challenge. The model frequently struggles to accurately depict the precise number of fingers. A potential solution entails training the model on a more extensive and diverse dataset containing videos featuring human subjects. This exposure would encompass a broader spectrum of hand appearances and variations, empowering the model to generate more realistic and anatomically precise hand representations.


LaVie represents a monumental leap in the realm of content creation, offering an innovative solution for transforming text into visually appealing videos. Its AI-powered capabilities streamline the production process, empowering individuals and businesses to create captivating video content efficiently. As technology continues to evolve, LaVie stands as a testament to the ever-expanding possibilities of AI-driven innovation in reshaping the way we communicate and engage with visual content.


Research Paper: LAVIE: High-Quality Video Generation with Cascaded Latent Diffusion Models

Project Website: https://vchitect.github.io/LaVie-project/

GitHub Repository: https://github.com/Vchitect/LaVie

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