Mistral 7B vs Llama2: Which Performs Better and Why?

November 3, 2023

In the ever-evolving landscape of natural language processing and understanding, language models have become the cornerstone of numerous AI applications. With the development of increasingly sophisticated models, the question of which one reigns supreme in terms of performance and efficiency has become ever more pertinent. In this blog post, we'll delve into the intriguing comparison between Mistral-7B and Llama2-13B, two prominent language models that have been making waves in the AI community and will be exploring their performance and features to help you understand which one might be the better choice for your needs.

Introduction to Mistral 7B: Size & Availability

Mistral AI, a startup co-founded by individuals with experience at Google's DeepMind and Meta, made a significant entrance into the world of LLMs with Mistral 7B. This model can be easily accessed and downloaded from GitHub or via a 13.4-gigabyte torrent, emphasizing accessibility.

What makes Mistral 7B particularly impressive is its performance. In various tests, it has outperformed Llama2-13B, and even exceeded Llama1-34B in many metrics. This suggests that Mistral 7B provides similar or better capabilities with a significantly lower computational overhead. Unlike top-tier models like GPT-4, Mistral 7B is accessible without the complexity and expense of APIs.

When it comes to coding tasks, Mistral 7B competes with CodeLlama 7B, and its compact size at 13.4 GB enables it to run on standard machines. Additionally, Mistral 7B Instruct, optimized for instructional datasets on Hugging Face, demonstrates impressive performance, even outperforming other 7B models in certain benchmarks.

Mistral 7B: A Giant in the Making

Mistral 7B is a State-of-the-Art (SOTA) language model, boasting an impressive 7.3 billion parameters. This model represents a significant leap in natural language understanding and generation. What makes Mistral 7B even more appealing is its release under the Apache 2.0 license, allowing unrestricted usage. It has garnered significant attention for several compelling reasons:

Performance Superiority

One of the standout features of Mistral 7B is its remarkable performance. When pitted against Llama2-13B, it outperforms on every metric. It's not just a marginal lead; Mistral 7B surpasses Llama2-13B on all benchmark tasks and even excels in many aspects compared to Llama-34B. This is a testament to its prowess in the realm of natural language understanding and generation. Moreover, it demonstrates competitive performance with CodeLlama-7B on code-related tasks, all while maintaining proficiency in various English language tasks.

Versatile Abilities

Mistral 7B is not just a one-trick pony. It excels in a broad spectrum of tasks, both in code-related domains and English language tasks. In fact, it approaches the performance of CodeLlama-7B on code-related tasks, showcasing its versatility and adaptability.

Efficient Inference

Speed matters in today's AI landscape. Mistral 7B employs Grouped Query Attention (GQA) for faster inference, making it suitable for real-time applications. Additionally, it employs Sliding Window Attention (SWA) to handle longer sequences efficiently and economically.

Mistral 7B Instruct

For fine-tuning enthusiasts, Mistral 7B Instruct showcases its generalization capabilities through fine-tuning on publicly available instruction datasets. It outperforms all other 7B models on MT-Bench and compares favorably with 13B chat models, further highlighting its adaptability.

The Mistral 7B Architecture

Mistral 7B is an architecture based on the transformer architecture and introduces several innovative features and parameters. Here's a gist of the architectural details:

  1. Sliding Window Attention
  • Mistral 7B addresses the quadratic complexity of vanilla attention by implementing Sliding Window Attention (SWA).
  • SWA allows each token to attend to a maximum of W tokens from the previous layer (here, W = 3).
  • Tokens outside the sliding window still influence next-word prediction.
  • Information can propagate forward by up to k × W tokens after k attention layers.
  • Parameters include dim: 4096, n_layers: 32, head_dim: 128, hidden_dim: 14336, n_heads: 32, n_kv_heads: 8, window_size: 4096, context_len: 8192, and vocab_size: 32000.

  1. Rolling Buffer Cache
  • A fixed attention span is maintained, and cache size is limited using a rolling buffer cache.
  • The cache has a fixed size of W, and keys and values for each timestep are stored in position i mod W of the cache.
  • Past values in the cache are overwritten when the position i is larger than W.
  • This approach reduces cache memory usage by 8x without compromising model quality.
  1. Pre-fill and Chunking
  • When generating a sequence, tokens are predicted one-by-one, and each token depends on the previous ones.
  • The prompt is known in advance, allowing pre-filling of the (k, v) cache with the prompt.
  • For large prompts, they can be chunked into smaller pieces and the cache pre-filled with each chunk.
  • The window size can be selected as the chunk size.
  • The attention mask works over both the cache and the chunk, ensuring the model has access to the required context while maintaining efficiency.

These architectural details in Mistral 7B are designed to improve efficiency, reduce memory consumption, and enhance performance when processing long sequences, making it well-suited for various natural language processing tasks.

Performance Head-to-Head: Mistral 7B vs Llama2-13B

To truly understand the capabilities of Mistral 7B, it's essential to compare it with its competitors. In this case, we have Llama2-13B as the contender. Performance comparisons were conducted across a wide range of benchmarks, encompassing various aspects:

  • Comparative Performance

Mistral 7B significantly outperforms Llama2-13B across a multitude of benchmarks. Whether it's commonsense reasoning, world knowledge, reading comprehension, or math-related tasks, Mistral 7B comes out on top. This isn't just a minor victory; it's a resounding win that showcases its capabilities.

  • Equivalent Model Size

In the realms of reasoning, comprehension, and STEM reasoning (MMLU), Mistral 7B performs as if it were a Llama2 model more than three times its size. This indicates not only its memory efficiency but also the improved throughput it offers. In essence, you're getting the power of a giant in a sleek and efficient package.

  • Knowledge Benchmarks

Mistral 7B excels in most evaluations and performs on par with Llama2-13B in knowledge benchmarks. This parity in knowledge tasks is particularly intriguing, especially when considering Mistral 7B's relatively limited parameter count.

The Verdict: Mistral 7B Shines Bright

In the battle of Mistral 7B vs. Llama2-13B, there's a clear winner. Mistral 7B consistently outperforms Llama2-13B on all metrics and stands competitively with Llama-34B. Notably, it excels in code and reasoning benchmarks, demonstrating its prowess in both specialized and general language tasks.

Perhaps the most remarkable aspect is that Mistral 7B performs equivalently to a Llama2 model that would be more than three times its size. This signifies a substantial saving in memory and a significant gain in throughput, making it an attractive choice for various AI applications.

Mistral AI's Transparency vs. Safety Concerns in Decentralization

While Mistral AI emphasizes transparency and a lack of proprietary data, there are concerns about safety. Their current model, 'Mistral-7B-v0.1,' is fully decentralized and can generate responses without moderation. This openness raises potential safety concerns, as it might be exploited by malicious actors. In contrast, models like GPT and Llama have mechanisms to discern when to respond. Despite these concerns, the decentralization of LLMs has its merits, allowing for positive applications and democratizing access to AI.

Deployment Flexibility

An advantage of Mistral 7B is its availability under the Apache 2.0 license. This open-source license makes Mistral 7B accessible for a wide range of users, from individuals to large corporations and governmental entities. The Apache 2.0 license provides flexibility for various use cases.


The emergence of open-source Large Language Models like Mistral 7B represents a significant shift in the AI industry. Mistral AI's innovative approaches, including Grouped-query attention and Sliding Window Attention, promise efficient performance without sacrificing quality.

While the decentralized nature of Mistral poses certain challenges and safety concerns, its flexibility and open-source licensing underscore the potential for democratizing AI. As the AI landscape continues to evolve, the focus will inevitably be on balancing the power of these models with ethical considerations and safety mechanisms.

In conclusion, Mistral 7B is a force to be reckoned with in the world of language models. Its versatile abilities, unmatched performance, and memory-efficient design make it a valuable asset in the arsenal of AI practitioners. As natural language processing and understanding continue to evolve, Mistral 7B stands as a testament to the strides made in AI and the incredible possibilities that lie ahead.


Mistral 7B

Latest Blogs
This is a decorative image for: A Complete Guide To Customer Acquisition For Startups
October 18, 2022

A Complete Guide To Customer Acquisition For Startups

Any business is enlivened by its customers. Therefore, a strategy to constantly bring in new clients is an ongoing requirement. In this regard, having a proper customer acquisition strategy can be of great importance.

So, if you are just starting your business, or planning to expand it, read on to learn more about this concept.

The problem with customer acquisition

As an organization, when working in a diverse and competitive market like India, you need to have a well-defined customer acquisition strategy to attain success. However, this is where most startups struggle. Now, you may have a great product or service, but if you are not in the right place targeting the right demographic, you are not likely to get the results you want.

To resolve this, typically, companies invest, but if that is not channelized properly, it will be futile.

So, the best way out of this dilemma is to have a clear customer acquisition strategy in place.

How can you create the ideal customer acquisition strategy for your business?

  • Define what your goals are

You need to define your goals so that you can meet the revenue expectations you have for the current fiscal year. You need to find a value for the metrics –

  • MRR – Monthly recurring revenue, which tells you all the income that can be generated from all your income channels.
  • CLV – Customer lifetime value tells you how much a customer is willing to spend on your business during your mutual relationship duration.  
  • CAC – Customer acquisition costs, which tells how much your organization needs to spend to acquire customers constantly.
  • Churn rate – It tells you the rate at which customers stop doing business.

All these metrics tell you how well you will be able to grow your business and revenue.

  • Identify your ideal customers

You need to understand who your current customers are and who your target customers are. Once you are aware of your customer base, you can focus your energies in that direction and get the maximum sale of your products or services. You can also understand what your customers require through various analytics and markers and address them to leverage your products/services towards them.

  • Choose your channels for customer acquisition

How will you acquire customers who will eventually tell at what scale and at what rate you need to expand your business? You could market and sell your products on social media channels like Instagram, Facebook and YouTube, or invest in paid marketing like Google Ads. You need to develop a unique strategy for each of these channels. 

  • Communicate with your customers

If you know exactly what your customers have in mind, then you will be able to develop your customer strategy with a clear perspective in mind. You can do it through surveys or customer opinion forms, email contact forms, blog posts and social media posts. After that, you just need to measure the analytics, clearly understand the insights, and improve your strategy accordingly.

Combining these strategies with your long-term business plan will bring results. However, there will be challenges on the way, where you need to adapt as per the requirements to make the most of it. At the same time, introducing new technologies like AI and ML can also solve such issues easily. To learn more about the use of AI and ML and how they are transforming businesses, keep referring to the blog section of E2E Networks.

Reference Links




This is a decorative image for: Constructing 3D objects through Deep Learning
October 18, 2022

Image-based 3D Object Reconstruction State-of-the-Art and trends in the Deep Learning Era

3D reconstruction is one of the most complex issues of deep learning systems. There have been multiple types of research in this field, and almost everything has been tried on it — computer vision, computer graphics and machine learning, but to no avail. However, that has resulted in CNN or convolutional neural networks foraying into this field, which has yielded some success.

The Main Objective of the 3D Object Reconstruction

Developing this deep learning technology aims to infer the shape of 3D objects from 2D images. So, to conduct the experiment, you need the following:

  • Highly calibrated cameras that take a photograph of the image from various angles.
  • Large training datasets can predict the geometry of the object whose 3D image reconstruction needs to be done. These datasets can be collected from a database of images, or they can be collected and sampled from a video.

By using the apparatus and datasets, you will be able to proceed with the 3D reconstruction from 2D datasets.

State-of-the-art Technology Used by the Datasets for the Reconstruction of 3D Objects

The technology used for this purpose needs to stick to the following parameters:

  • Input

Training with the help of one or multiple RGB images, where the segmentation of the 3D ground truth needs to be done. It could be one image, multiple images or even a video stream.

The testing will also be done on the same parameters, which will also help to create a uniform, cluttered background, or both.

  • Output

The volumetric output will be done in both high and low resolution, and the surface output will be generated through parameterisation, template deformation and point cloud. Moreover, the direct and intermediate outputs will be calculated this way.

  • Network architecture used

The architecture used in training is 3D-VAE-GAN, which has an encoder and a decoder, with TL-Net and conditional GAN. At the same time, the testing architecture is 3D-VAE, which has an encoder and a decoder.

  • Training used

The degree of supervision used in 2D vs 3D supervision, weak supervision along with loss functions have to be included in this system. The training procedure is adversarial training with joint 2D and 3D embeddings. Also, the network architecture is extremely important for the speed and processing quality of the output images.

  • Practical applications and use cases

Volumetric representations and surface representations can do the reconstruction. Powerful computer systems need to be used for reconstruction.

Given below are some of the places where 3D Object Reconstruction Deep Learning Systems are used:

  • 3D reconstruction technology can be used in the Police Department for drawing the faces of criminals whose images have been procured from a crime site where their faces are not completely revealed.
  • It can be used for re-modelling ruins at ancient architectural sites. The rubble or the debris stubs of structures can be used to recreate the entire building structure and get an idea of how it looked in the past.
  • They can be used in plastic surgery where the organs, face, limbs or any other portion of the body has been damaged and needs to be rebuilt.
  • It can be used in airport security, where concealed shapes can be used for guessing whether a person is armed or is carrying explosives or not.
  • It can also help in completing DNA sequences.

So, if you are planning to implement this technology, then you can rent the required infrastructure from E2E Networks and avoid investing in it. And if you plan to learn more about such topics, then keep a tab on the blog section of the website

Reference Links



This is a decorative image for: Comprehensive Guide to Deep Q-Learning for Data Science Enthusiasts
October 18, 2022

A Comprehensive Guide To Deep Q-Learning For Data Science Enthusiasts

For all data science enthusiasts who would love to dig deep, we have composed a write-up about Q-Learning specifically for you all. Deep Q-Learning and Reinforcement learning (RL) are extremely popular these days. These two data science methodologies use Python libraries like TensorFlow 2 and openAI’s Gym environment.

So, read on to know more.

What is Deep Q-Learning?

Deep Q-Learning utilizes the principles of Q-learning, but instead of using the Q-table, it uses the neural network. The algorithm of deep Q-Learning uses the states as input and the optimal Q-value of every action possible as the output. The agent gathers and stores all the previous experiences in the memory of the trained tuple in the following order:

State> Next state> Action> Reward

The neural network training stability increases using a random batch of previous data by using the experience replay. Experience replay also means the previous experiences stocking, and the target network uses it for training and calculation of the Q-network and the predicted Q-Value. This neural network uses openAI Gym, which is provided by taxi-v3 environments.

Now, any understanding of Deep Q-Learning   is incomplete without talking about Reinforcement Learning.

What is Reinforcement Learning?

Reinforcement is a subsection of ML. This part of ML is related to the action in which an environmental agent participates in a reward-based system and uses Reinforcement Learning to maximize the rewards. Reinforcement Learning is a different technique from unsupervised learning or supervised learning because it does not require a supervised input/output pair. The number of corrections is also less, so it is a highly efficient technique.

Now, the understanding of reinforcement learning is incomplete without knowing about Markov Decision Process (MDP). MDP is involved with each state that has been presented in the results of the environment, derived from the state previously there. The information which composes both states is gathered and transferred to the decision process. The task of the chosen agent is to maximize the awards. The MDP optimizes the actions and helps construct the optimal policy.

For developing the MDP, you need to follow the Q-Learning Algorithm, which is an extremely important part of data science and machine learning.

What is Q-Learning Algorithm?

The process of Q-Learning is important for understanding the data from scratch. It involves defining the parameters, choosing the actions from the current state and also choosing the actions from the previous state and then developing a Q-table for maximizing the results or output rewards.

The 4 steps that are involved in Q-Learning:

  1. Initializing parameters – The RL (reinforcement learning) model learns the set of actions that the agent requires in the state, environment and time.
  2. Identifying current state – The model stores the prior records for optimal action definition for maximizing the results. For acting in the present state, the state needs to be identified and perform an action combination for it.
  3. Choosing the optimal action set and gaining the relevant experience – A Q-table is generated from the data with a set of specific states and actions, and the weight of this data is calculated for updating the Q-Table to the following step.
  4. Updating Q-table rewards and next state determination – After the relevant experience is gained and agents start getting environmental records. The reward amplitude helps to present the subsequent step.  

In case the Q-table size is huge, then the generation of the model is a time-consuming process. This situation requires Deep Q-learning.

Hopefully, this write-up has provided an outline of Deep Q-Learning and its related concepts. If you wish to learn more about such topics, then keep a tab on the blog section of the E2E Networks website.

Reference Links



This is a decorative image for: GAUDI: A Neural Architect for Immersive 3D Scene Generation
October 13, 2022

GAUDI: A Neural Architect for Immersive 3D Scene Generation

The evolution of artificial intelligence in the past decade has been staggering, and now the focus is shifting towards AI and ML systems to understand and generate 3D spaces. As a result, there has been extensive research on manipulating 3D generative models. In this regard, Apple’s AI and ML scientists have developed GAUDI, a method specifically for this job.

An introduction to GAUDI

The GAUDI 3D immersive technique founders named it after the famous architect Antoni Gaudi. This AI model takes the help of a camera pose decoder, which enables it to guess the possible camera angles of a scene. Hence, the decoder then makes it possible to predict the 3D canvas from almost every angle.

What does GAUDI do?

GAUDI can perform multiple functions –

  • The extensions of these generative models have a tremendous effect on ML and computer vision. Pragmatically, such models are highly useful. They are applied in model-based reinforcement learning and planning world models, SLAM is s, or 3D content creation.
  • Generative modelling for 3D objects has been used for generating scenes using graf, pigan, and gsn, which incorporate a GAN (Generative Adversarial Network). The generator codes radiance fields exclusively. Using the 3D space in the scene along with the camera pose generates the 3D image from that point. This point has a density scalar and RGB value for that specific point in 3D space. This can be done from a 2D camera view. It does this by imposing 3D datasets on those 2D shots. It isolates various objects and scenes and combines them to render a new scene altogether.
  • GAUDI also removes GANs pathologies like mode collapse and improved GAN.
  • GAUDI also uses this to train data on a canonical coordinate system. You can compare it by looking at the trajectory of the scenes.

How is GAUDI applied to the content?

The steps of application for GAUDI have been given below:

  • Each trajectory is created, which consists of a sequence of posed images (These images are from a 3D scene) encoded into a latent representation. This representation which has a radiance field or what we refer to as the 3D scene and the camera path is created in a disentangled way. The results are interpreted as free parameters. The problem is optimized by and formulation of a reconstruction objective.
  • This simple training process is then scaled to trajectories, thousands of them creating a large number of views. The model samples the radiance fields totally from the previous distribution that the model has learned.
  • The scenes are thus synthesized by interpolation within the hidden space.
  • The scaling of 3D scenes generates many scenes that contain thousands of images. During training, there is no issue related to canonical orientation or mode collapse.
  • A novel de-noising optimization technique is used to find hidden representations that collaborate in modelling the camera poses and the radiance field to create multiple datasets with state-of-the-art performance in generating 3D scenes by building a setup that uses images and text.

To conclude, GAUDI has more capabilities and can also be used for sampling various images and video datasets. Furthermore, this will make a foray into AR (augmented reality) and VR (virtual reality). With GAUDI in hand, the sky is only the limit in the field of media creation. So, if you enjoy reading about the latest development in the field of AI and ML, then keep a tab on the blog section of the E2E Networks website.

Reference Links




Build on the most powerful infrastructure cloud

A vector illustration of a tech city using latest cloud technologies & infrastructure