Image Processing: An Overview

September 7, 2022

Image processing technologies are classified into two types: analogue image processing and digital image processing. Hard copies, such as prints and pictures, can benefit from analogue image processing. Digital image processing techniques aid in the alteration of digital pictures through the use of computers.

The scope of this blog is limited to digital image processing only but still, let's see a little history of image processing. One of the early uses of images was in the newspaper industry when images were transmitted by undersea cable between London and New York. In the early 1920s, the introduction of the Bartlane cable image transmission system lowered the time necessary to convey a picture over the Atlantic from more than a week to less than three hours. Images were coded for cable transmission and recreated at the receiving end using specialized printing equipment.

Since then image processing has been a constantly growing field. Over the last five years, there has been a considerable surge in interest in picture morphology, neural networks, full-color image processing, image data compression, image recognition, and knowledge-based image analysis systems.

In this blog, we are going to cover the basics as well as advanced concepts related to image processing. 

The blog will touch on the following topics:

  1. What is an Image?
  2. What is an Image processing
  3. Why we need Image processing
  4. Real World Applications of Image Processing
  5. Conclusion

What is an Image?

An image is defined as a two-dimensional function, F(x,y), where x and y are spatial coordinates, and the amplitude of F at any pair of coordinates (x,y) is referred to as the image's intensity at that location. In other words, a picture may be characterized as a two-dimensional array specially structured in rows and columns. 

We call it a digital picture when the x,y, and amplitude values of F are finite. The digital image is made up of a finite number of elements, each with its own location and set of values. These elements are known as picture elements, image elements, and pixels. Pixels are the elements of a computer picture.

What is an Image processing?

Digital Image Processing is the process of obtaining a picture of the region containing the text, preprocessing that image, extracting the individual characters, describing the character in a form appropriate for computer processing, and identifying those individual characters.

The basic phases in image processing are as follows: 

  1. Importing the picture using an image capturing software 
  2. Image analysis and manipulation 
  3. Creating an output, which might be an edited image or a report based on the image analysis.

Computers are used to edit digital photographs using digital image processing techniques. Any form of data must go through three main steps while being processed digitally. These include pre-processing, display and enhancement, and extraction of data.

Why do we need Image processing?

Image processing is commonly thought to be the arbitrary manipulation of pictures for the sake of aesthetics or to promote the desired reality. However, a more true description would be a method of translating between the human visual system and digital imaging sensors, because the human visual system does not experience the environment in the same way as digital detectors do. 

Image processing is commonly used for the following purposes: 

  • Picture sharpening and restoration.
  • Visualizing and observing items that are difficult to see. 
  • Image retrieval for searching high-resolution images. 
  • For identifying patterns and numerous other things in a picture. 

The following example may help you understand why we employ and need image processing:

We all know that satellites are the most powerful and useful tool for gathering information about the universe and the earth. Many decisions that are not taken directly with assumptions are made using images provided by satellites. However, images provided by satellites are in the form of RGB combinations, and thus we must convert them into their appropriate color combination as well as a format at the time image processing is performed. Satellites transmit images or data as digital signals, which computers process. Additional noise and bandwidth constraints are imposed by digital detectors.

Figure: Steps in satellite image processing


Real World Applications of Image Processing

Although there are many real-world applications for Image processing. A few of the prominent and the most commonly known are listed below:

  1. For Traffic Sensing: A video image processing system, or VIPS, is used in the situation of traffic sensors. This is made up of three parts: a) an image capture system, b) a communications system, and c) an image processing system. When collecting video, a VIPS has many detecting zones that emit an "on" signal when a vehicle enters the zone and an "off" signal when the vehicle departs the zone. This helps in detecting any irregularities in the vehicle and in the traffic as well.

Figure: Traffic control using Image Processing

  1. Medical Field: Image processing has several medicinal uses, including ultraviolet imaging, CT Scanners, MRI, PET scanning, X-ray examination, and Imaging using gamma rays.

Figure: Use of Image Processing for X-ray and MRI.

  1. Facial Recognition: Image processing is often used for facial recognition. The computer is initially taught the characteristics of human faces. It learns descriptive features such as the distance between the two eyes and the average human face shape, which are used as metrics to form the face shape.

Figure: General schema for face recognition using image recognition


  1. Image Restoration: Picture processing can be used to restore and fill in missing or corrupted image components. Image processing algorithms that have been thoroughly trained with existing picture datasets are used to build newer copies of old and damaged photographs.

Figure: Use of Image Processing for Restoring a degraded image.

Apart from the above-listed applications, image processing has wide use in various other fields such as heart disease identification, lung disease identification, and for analyzing mammograms to detect breast tumors.


With the introduction of fast and inexpensive equipment, image processing has become an extremely popular topic of research and practice. It offers cost-effective solutions to a wide range of real-world applications. Various strategies for developing intelligent systems have been created, and many of them are currently in use at various research institutions throughout the world. The future of digital image processing is likely to contribute to the creation of a smart and intelligent world in areas such as health, education, defense, traffic, residences, offices, cities, and so on. 

We hope that this blog was able to give you some basic information on image processing, including its history, needs, methodology, duties, and applications. The primary goal addressed here is to provide anyone interested in this field with some deep knowledge of image processing.

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Impact of the Strong Dollar: Cloud Costs Increasing, Be Indian Buy Indian

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What is a Strong Dollar?

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Increase in Cloud Costs Due to Strong Dollar

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Why are Cloud Services Becoming More Expensive?

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Actions CEOs can take to get the value in Cloud Computing

It is not a new thing to say that a major transition is on the way. The transition in which businesses will rely heavily on cloud infrastructure rather than having their own physical IT structure. All of this is due to the cost savings and increased productivity that cloud technology brings to these businesses. Each technological advancement comes with a certain level of risk. Which must be handled carefully in order to ensure the long-term viability of the technology and the benefits it provides.

And CEOs are the primary motivators and decision-makers in any major shift or technological migration in the organization. In the twenty-first century, which is a data-driven century, it is up to the company's leader to decide what and how his/her organization will perform, overcome the risk and succeed in the coming days.

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  1. A Coordinated Effort

As the saying goes, the more you avoid the risk, the closer it gets. So, if CEOs and their management teams have yet to take an active part or give the necessary attention that their migration journey to the cloud requires, now is the best time to start top-team support for the cloud enablement required to expedite digital strategy, digitalization of the organization, 

The CEO's position is critical because no one else can mediate between the many stakeholders involved, including the CIO, CTO, CFO, chief human-resources officer (CHRO), chief information security officer (CISO), and business-unit leaders.

The move to cloud computing is a collective-action challenge, requiring a coordinated effort throughout an organization's leadership staff. In other words, it's a question of orchestration, and only CEOs can wield the baton. To accelerate the transition to the cloud, CEOs should ask their CIO and CTO what assistance they require to guide the business on the path.

     2. Enhancing business interactions 

To achieve the speed and agility that cloud platforms offer, regular engagement is required between IT managers and their counterparts in business units and functions, particularly those who control products and competence areas. CEOs must encourage company executives to choose qualified decision-makers to serve as product owners for each business capability.

  1. Be Agile

If your organization wants to benefit from the cloud, your IT department, if it isn't already, must become more agile. This entails more than simply transitioning development teams to agile product models. Agile IT also entails bringing agility to your IT infrastructure and operations by transitioning infrastructure and security teams from reactive, "ticket-driven" operations to proactive models in which scrum teams create application programme interfaces (APIs) that service businesses and developers can consume.

  1. Recruiting new employees 

CIOs and CTOs are currently in the lead due to their outstanding efforts in the aftermath of the epidemic. The CEOs must ensure that these executives maintain their momentum while they conduct the cloud transformation. 

Also, Cloud technology necessitates the hire of a highly skilled team of engineers, who are few in number but extremely expensive. As a result, it is envisaged that the CHRO's normal hiring procedures will need to be adjusted in order to attract the proper expertise. Company CEOs may facilitate this by appropriate involvement since this will be critical in deciding the success of the cloud transition.

  1. Model of Business Sustainability 

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  1. Taking risks into consideration 

Risk is inherent in all aspects of corporate technology. Companies must be aware of the risks associated with cloud adoption in order to reduce security, resilience, and compliance problems. This includes, among other things, engaging in comprehensive talks about the appropriate procedures for matching risk appetite with technological environment decisions. Getting the business to take the correct risk tone will necessitate special attention from the CEO.

It's easy to allow concerns about security, resilience, and compliance to stall a cloud operation. Instead of allowing risks to derail progress, CEOs should insist on a realistic risk appetite that represents the company plan, while situating cloud computing risks within the context of current on-premises computing risks and demanding choices for risk mitigation in the cloud.


In conclusion, the benefits of cloud computing may be obtained through a high-level approach. A smooth collaboration between the CEO, CIO, and CTO may transform a digital transformation journey into a profitable avenue for the company.

CEOs must consider long-term cloud computing strategy and ensure that the organization is provided with the funding and resources for cloud adoption. The right communication is critical in cloud migration: employees should get these communications from C-suite executives in order to build confidence and guarantee adherence to governance requirements. Simply installing the cloud will not provide value for a company. Higher-level executives (particularly the CEO) must take the lead in the digital transformation path.

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